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Excerpt 1 – The evolution of family life (adapted from The Telegraph)

Your experience of family changes as you travel through life, from relying on your parents to looking after your own children. The word “family” is defined as “a group of people consisting of two parents and their children, or who are related by blood or marriage”. Of course, there are many variants of that nucleardefinition. Family is such an emotive word that a dictionary definition will always struggle to pin it down. It is a core element of personal economy, and it gives us a sense of place in the world. The bonds between life partners can feel more tightly wound than those between siblings or even parent and child.

Excerpt 2 – A Statisical Portrait of the “Typical” American (adapted from The New York Times)

The typical American is a white woman who is 32.7 years old. In 2010, whites were 80.3% of the population, blacks were 12.1%, others were 7.7%. Hispanic people, who can be of any race, were 9.0%. Females were 51.2%. Age figure was a median. The average American male is 5 feet 9.1 inches tall and weighs 172 pounds. The average female is 5 feet 3.7 inches tall and weighs 144 pounds. They think this current weight is just about right. The typical American is a Democrat, and considers herself a moderate. She considers herself an environmentalist.

Excerpt 3 – The look of a leader (adapted from The Economist)

In gorilla society, power belongs to silverback males. These splendid creatures have numerous status markers besides their back hair: they are bigger, strike space-filling postures, produce deeper sounds, thump their chests lustily and exude an air of physical fitness.

Things are not that different in the corporate world. The typical chief executive is more than six feet tall, has a deep voice, a good posture, a touch of grey in his thick, lustrous hair and, for his age, a fit body. Bosses stand tall when talking to subordinates. Their conversation is laden with prestige pauses and declarative statements.

Excerpt 4 – Thank viruses for your skin and bone (adapted from The New Scientist)

Next time you have a cold, rather than cursing, maybe you should thank the virus for making your skin. Genes borrowed from viruses seem to give cells the abil- ity to grow into tissues and organs, and even reproduce sexually. Without these genes, animals could not have evolved beyond simple blobs of cells. Our cells often need to fuse with other cells, making big cells with multiple nuclei. This mixing is essential for the production of most organs – such as muscles, skin and bone – and even for reproduction, when eggs and sperm fuse. For instance, internal tubes like blood vessels are made of fused cells.


la tête the head
le visage the face
la peau the skin
un poil / les cheveux (chevelure) a hair / hair
le front the forehead
l'oreille the ear
l'oeil the eye
sourcil / cil / paupière eyebrow / eyelash / eyelid
le nez the nose
la bouche the mouth
les lèvres the lips
la joue / pommettes the cheek / cheekbone
la mâchoire the jaw
le menton the chin
la nuque the nape (of the neck)
le cou the neck
la gorge the throat
l'épaule the shoulder
le tronc the trunk
la poitrine, la cage thoracique the chest
le dos the back
une côte a rib
le coude the elbow
le ventre the belly / the tummy
le nombril the navel / the belly button
les fesses the buttocks
les seins / un sein the breasts / a breast
le bras the arm
l’avant-bras the forearm
l'aisselle the armpit
la main the hand
être gaucher to be left-handed
le poignet the wrist
le poing the fist
un doigt a finger
les articulations the knuckles
un ongle a nail
la paume the palm
la hanche the hip
la jambe the leg
la cuisse the thigh
le genou the knee
le mollet the calf
la cheville the ankle
le pied / les pieds the foot / the feet
le talon the heel
l'orteil the toe
le squelette the skeleton
un os a bone
le crâne the skull
la colonne vertébrale the backbone, the spine
une articulation a joint
un muscle a muscle
un nerf a nerve
la chair flesh
une veine, une artère a vein, an artery
le sang blood
saigner to bleed
une cellule a cell
le cerveau the brain
la langue the tongue
une dent / les dents a tooth / teeth
le coeur the heart
un poumon a lung
l'estomac the stomach
les tripes / les intestins the guts / the bowels
le foie / le rein / la vessie the liver / kidney / bladder
les organes génitaux the genitals
les traits the features
beau (homme) handsome
laid(e), repoussant(e) ugly
beau/belle, joli(e) pretty
beau, belle beautiful
séduisant(e) attractive
beau, belle, élégant(e) good-looking
sans charme, quelconque plain
la silhouette the figure
être musclé to be brawny
être solide to have a strong constitution
charnu fleshy / plumpy
malingre, maigre skinny
mince thin
être (tout) nu to be naked
le teint the complexion
la peau noire /le teint mat / pâle dark/ tanned / light skin
une ride a wrinkle
tâches de rousseur freckles
les cheveux courts / longs / mi-longs short /long / medium-length hair
une mèche / une boucle a lock / a curl
ondulé / bouclé / crépu wavy / curly / frizzy
blond / brun / châtain / roux fair / dark / auburn / red
être chauve to be bald
une perruque a wig
une moustache / une barbe a moustache / a beard
imberbe beardless
poilu hairy
un nourrisson, nouveau-né an infant
un tout-petit, un bambin a toddler
l'enfance boyhood, girlhood
l'enfance childhood
un enfant/ les enfants a child / children (pl.)
(s’occuper de) garder les enfants to look after children
la garde des enfants childcare
un adolescent (de 13 à 19 ans) adolescent, teenager
la puberté puberty
un jeune a young / youngster / a youth
être un ado / à l’adolescence to be in one’s teens
atteindre la majorité to come of age
un adulte an adult, a grown-up
dans la force de l’âge, d’âge moyen middle-aged, in one’s prime
début/milieu/fin de la trentaine early/mid/late thirties
mineur an underage, a minor
paraître de son âge (plus vieux que son âge) to look (older than) one’s age
agir avec la maturité propre à son âge to act one’s age
vieux aged, old
vieillir to grow old
la vieillesse old age
trop âgé overage
les vieux, les personnes âgées / une personne âgée the elderly / a third-ager
un retraité an old-age pensioner
prendre sa retraite to retire
l’espérance de vie life expectancy
le noyau familial / la famille étendue the nuclear family / the extended family
un parent, un proche a relative
un foyer a home, a household
naître to be born
le mari, la femme the husband, the wife
un compagnon / un conjoint a partner/ a spouse
le mariage (institution / événement) marriage / wedding
les parents/ le père/ la mère the parents/ father/ mother
le frère/ la soeur/ les frères et soeurs the brother/ the sister/ the siblings
la fraternité brotherhood, sisterhood
un frère jumeau a twin brother
le fils/ la fille the son/ the daughter
un enfant unique an only child
un marmot (colloq.), un rejeton a brat
un garnement an urchin
un gamin/gosse, un gars, un jeune garçon a kid / a lad
le grand-père the grandfather
l’arrière-grand-mère the great-grandmother
le beau-père (suite à remariage) the stepfather
la demi-soeur (suite à remariage) the stepsister
la belle-mère the mother-in-law
le beau-frère the brother-in-law
le parrain/ le filleul the godfather/ the godchild
un tuteur a guardian
un pupille a ward
l’oncle/ la tante the uncle/ the aunt
le neveu/ la nièce the nephew/ the niece
une vieille fille a spinster, an old maid
un célibataire a bachelor
les parents adoptifs the foster- parents
un enfant adoptif an adopted child
un orphelin/ l’orphelinat an orphan/ orphanage
un veuf / une veuve a widower / a widow
un nom/ nom de famille/ un surnom a name/ a surname/ a nickname
un nom de jeune fille a maiden name
ressembler à quelqu’un to look like somebody
la progéniture the offspring
un descendant a descendant
un cousin éloigné a distant cousin
une mère célibataire / parent isolé a single mother
se séparer to separate, to split up
un arbre généalogique a family tree
entretenir la famille / subvenir aux besoins… to support the family
obtenir la garde des enfants to gain custody of the children
faire partie de la famille to be part of the family
un bon père de famille a family man
les liens familiaux family ties
donner la chair de poule to make s.o.’s flesh creep
faire dresser les cheveux sur la tête to make s.o’s hair stand on end
haleter to gasp for breath
hausser les épaules to shrug one’s shoulders
sans pitié, de sang froid cold-blooded
nu-pieds, pieds nus barefoot
être glacé jusqu’aux os to be frozen to the bone
être trempé jusqu’aux os to be soaked to the skin
avoir un coup de foudre to be head over heels
être très maladroit to be all thumbs
se battre avec acharnement to fight tooth and nail
le bouche à oreille by word of mouth
garder l’oeil sur qq’un / surveiller to keep an eye on s.b
faire la grimace to pull a face
fréquenter quelqu’un to rub shoulders with s.b
lever / baisser la main to raise / lower one’s hand
faire preuve de fermeté to put one’s feet down
être totalement d’accord to see eye to eye with s.o.
mettre les pieds quelque part to set foot somewhere
aussi vieux que le monde as old as the hills
l’âge ingrat the awkward age
depuis des lustres for ages
le fossé des générations the generation gap
c’est un jeu d’enfant a child could do it
Il faut bien que jeunesse se passe Boys will be boys
la crise de la quarantaine mid-life crisis
prendre de l’âge to be getting on in years
ne plus être tout jeune to be past one’s prime
en dehors du mariage out of wedlock
porter le nom de to bear the name of…
être bien le fils de son père to be a chip of the old block
c'est (un trait) de famille it runs in the family
Qui aime bien châtie bien Spare the rod and spoil the child
L’enfant est le père de l’homme. the child is father to the man

1- Your brain is your most powerful organ, yet weighs only about three pounds.


2-  In second grade the principal was a bulky man, about two hundred and thirty pounds and six feet two inches tall.

3- Parents and the family play a big part in providing children with knowledge and practical assistance with regards to human rights issues: more than half of pupils receive information about human rights from their parents, and they also turn to their parents when their rights are infringed.

4- She had her mother’s light complexion and blue eyes but her Italian father’s black hair.

5- The age of 65 is typically used as the criterion for defining the “elderly” population, because this is the age at which persons become eligible for certain age- related pension and income security benefits, and because of its association with mandatory retirement.

1- Bien qu’il ne pèse qu’un petit kilo et demi, votre cerveau est votre organe le plus puissant.

2- En CE1, le directeur de l’école était un homme corpulent, pesant environ 104 kg et mesurant 1,85 mètre. (Rappel : une livre = 450 grammes un pied = 30 cm un pouce = 2,5 cm)


3- Pour les enfants, les parents et la famille jouent un rôle primordial dans l’acquisition de connaissances sur les droits de l’homme et l’aide concrète qui peut leur être apportée, car plus de la moitié des élèves sont informés sur les droits de l’homme par leurs parents, et c’est aussi vers eux qu’ils se tournent en cas de violation de leurs droits.

4- Elle hérita du teint clair et des yeux bleus de sa mère, et des cheveux noirs de son père, un Italien.

5- On utilise généralement l’âge de 65 ans comme référence pour définir la popu- lation « âgée », parce que c’est l’âge de l’admissibilité à / l’âge où l’on obtient certaines pensions de retraite et aux prestations d’allocation vieillesse, et aussi en raison de son lien avec la retraite obligatoire.

The spread of Mankind

The spread of humans represents an evolutionary success due to a larger brain, which brings about high levels of abstract reasoning, language, problem solving mainly through social learning. Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal (fire, cooking, construction...) and are the only species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts. Anatomically modern humans first appeared in Africa about 200,000 years ago.

Darwin, Evolution of Species

The theory of linking humans with apes by descent was stated in 1859 with the publication of British researcher Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, in which he promoted the idea of the evolution of new species from earlier species. Darwin’s book did not address the question of human evolution. In 1863, the debates about the nature of human evolution came to a climax: human evolution was explained by illustrating many of the similarities and differences between humans and apes. Later, the origin of the mental capacities and the moral sensibilities of humans could be explained by the theory of evolution and sexual selection to humans.

Kinship, marriage

Marriage is the legally or formally recognized union of two people as partners in a personal relationship (historically and in some jurisdictions specifically a union between a man and a woman). All human societies organize social relation- ships on relations between parents and children, and relations through marriage. Such relationships are generally called kinship relations. Marriage (matrimony or wedlock), is a union between spouses that defines rights and duties between them, with their children, and their in-laws, as well as society in general. In very general terms, marriage is considered a cultural universal. The wedding is the actual ceremony, marriage refers to the institution.


A family is a group of affiliated people: a social group united by blood or the descendants of a common ancestor. Members of the immediate family include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons and / or daughters. Members of the extended family include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and / or siblings-in-law. Sometimes these are also considered members of the immediate family, depending on an individual’s specific relationship. In most societies, the family is the principal institution for the socialization of children. Sexual relations among the members are regulated by rules concerning incest such as the incest taboo. The word “family” can also be used to refer to inclusive categories such as a community.

If The World Were 100 People | GOOD Data

GOAL : comment on a mute video, by describing it with your own words

Activity 1 - Statements and questions about the video

1/ There are more women than men in the world.

2/ Which age range do most people in the world fall into?

3/ List the five most commonly spoken languages featured in this video.

4/ In this scenario, one person controls ___% of all the money.

5/ It is more common to be overweight in the world than it is to be malnourished.


Activity 2 - Here are a few answers by students. Can you correct the mistakes ?

Student 1 : It was surprised to learnt that the ratio of overweigh peoples exceeded the malnourished while the mass medias focuses more on the malnourished led by the poverty than on the overweight caused by the stress and others factors.

Student 2 : In my opinion, it was that few people hold a lots of money, meanwhile, a lots of poors don't earn the enough to survived. It is not surprising, however, the large proportion of unegality between people is terrifying.

Student 3 : One could be overweigh and healthy just as one could be within the normal weigh range but unfit and unhealthy basing on cardiovascular measurement. Each individuals are unique. There are indeed many overlapped areas in this video.

Student 4 : I was most surprised that English is only the third most speaking language in the world, less that Mandarin which is the most speaking language, and Spanish is talking for more people than English is a surprise indeed.

Student 5 : The video show that on the world, the desiguality prevail...


ACTIVITY 3 - Now, take about 10-15 minutes to prepare an oral presentation about this video. Remember to...

rephrase and reorganise the contents in the synthesis

make a proper transition that shows the interest of your commentary

make a quality introduction (S.C.A) and a decent conclusion that will encourage questions from the other students.



If the world were 100 people: One video that explains how unequal the world is. 

'When you shrink the world's population down to 100 people, this is what you get’. If the world's population was shrunk down to 100 people, one person would control 50 per cent of the money, 15 would be malnourished and 13 would not have access to clean water.

Using public data, GOOD produced a video to illustrate how unequal the world is by imagining how the world would look if it was made up of 100 people.

Highlighting differences in health across the world, 15 people would be malnourished and one starving, while 21 would be overweight.

 In terms of income, 15 people would earn less than $2 a day and 56 between $2-10 per day.

By contrast, six people would make between $50-90 dollars a day, while one person would take home more than $90 per day. Overall, one person would control 50 per cent of all the money in the world.

The video also shows differences in education across the world, out of 100, 14 would be unable to read and 93 would not have attended college.

When it comes to quality of life, 13 people would have no access to clean water and 23 people would not have shelter. "If there world were 100 people," the video asks, "would we all fight harder for equality?"


1/ Identify the main periods presented in the document, and list them in a chronology.

2/ Fill in a chart in order to make the understanding of this article clear and simple.

3/ According to you, what are the objectives of such an article ?

4/ Make a simple summary of the article, and make sure that you use your own words, not those of the author.

5/ Imagine you have to write an article about the evolution of mankind over the last 2000 years. What milestones would you choose in order to show the universality of mankind over the five continents ?

6/ Get ready for an oral presentation of the summary PLUS your own development. Remember that it will be clear if you make a proper introduction and conclusion, of course.











The great migration: how modern humans spread across the world (The Independent, 2023)

It was probably a warm interglacial interlude within the Ice Age, between about 130,000 and 90,000 years ago, that initially triggered large-scale Homo sapiens migrations across Africa.

Then, from about 70,000 years ago, the climate cooled, causing glaciers to form on the tops of mountain ranges so that parts of north-west and north-east Africa were cut off from each other, as well as from the south. As Charles Darwin discovered, whenever a species is physically separated, small variations begin to creep into its respective gene pools, creating diversity. So it was with modern man, giving us our four main ethnic groups: Khoisan (African), Caucasian (European), Mongolian (Chinese and American Indian) and Aboriginal (Australian).

From about 60,000 years ago, these four groups of humans emigrated from Africa separately and in their own time across the world, taking their small genetic differences with them. Some Homo sapiens swept across Asia, displacing the last of the Neanderthals either by depriving them of food, or by hunting them, or maybe occasionally by absorbing them into their own species through limited interbreeding. Some turned south and reached India and China. They learnt to build rafts. From about 40,000 years ago, Australia, for many millions of years the preserve of marsupial mammals, became another human hunting-ground, as the first people paddled ashore.

The first Homo sapiens to arrive in Europe walked eastwards out of Africa about 50,000 years ago, and then came north via the Middle East. They brought with them enormous changes in lifestyles, technology and culture, including the world's first spears that were specially designed for flight, rather than for close-range use as with Neanderthal-style clubs.

The time from about 50,000 years ago marks the start of the final second before midnight on the 24-hour clock of Earth history. This period has been described as "the Great Leap Forward", because the complexity of human tools increased dramatically. Bones, tusks and antlers were used for the first time to carve out ornaments as well as to craft useful household items such as needles for sewing, and spoon-like oil lamps that burned animal fats. Jewellery, in the form of necklaces and pendants, has been found buried inside graves of these people. The first ceramic pots date from this period, as do the world's first known sculptures, such as the Venus of Willendorf, a female fertility figure found in Austria in 1908 which is thought to date from about 24,000 years ago. Some of the first known cave paintings date back to the same era. They can be seen to this day in the caves of Lascaux, in the Dordogne region of France.

The Earth was far cooler back then. The last of the great ice sheets swept down from the North Pole about 22,000 years ago, to disappear rather quickly 12,000 years later. During this time some people adapted to the changes in climate by developing paler skin that helped produce sufficient quantities of vitamin D for bone formation despite the weaker sunlight of the Ice Age.

Homo sapiens arrived in Britain about 20,000 years ago. They walked across the Channel from France, since it didn't flood until the end of the last big Ice Age melt, about 10,000 years ago. But they weren't the first to arrive. Up to seven previous attempts were made by earlier people to populate the British Isles, starting with Homo erectus some 700,000 years ago. Each time, the populations of humans died out, probably because of the horrendously icy conditions that periodically swept over the islands as far south as present-day London. Even in the far south, the cold would sometimes have been too much for any type of human to bear.

About 15,000 years ago, giant glaciers still locked up much of the Earth's waters, sinking sea levels so that a massive land bridge the size of Poland, called Beringia, connected the eastern tip of Russia to Alaska across what is now a 95km-wide stretch of sea called the Bering Strait. In those days people could cross by foot from Asia to North America, a land that had until then probably been free from human habitation (although some scientists think people may have rafted there a few thousand years before from south Asia, via the Pacific islands). North and South America were the last of the great habitable continents to be populated by man, and are still appropriately called "the New World" even today. It was an opportunistic walk all the way across Asia, following big animals, hunting on the move, making the most of nature's twisting and turning climate changes.

With another land bridge via Panama linking the two great Americas, it wasn't long before the first people from North America wandered down to the southern American continent where the climate was warmer and the land rich in vegetation and game.

The arrival of Stone Age humans in this part of the world – as in Australia – came with dramatic consequences for much of the world's wildlife. Although a few of nature's ecosystems lingered on without any human representation – New Zealand and Iceland were untouched by humans until about AD800 or later – many of the world's living creatures were by now beginning to succumb to mankind's growing influence as he spread out to envelop the whole of planet Earth.



1/ Identify the main periods presented in the document, and list them in a chronology.

2/ Fill in a chart in order to make the understanding of this article clear and simple.

3/ According to you, what are the objectives of such an article ?

4/ Make a simple summary of the article, and make sure that you use your own words, not those of the author.

5/ Imagine you have to write an article about the evolution of mankind over the last 2000 years. What milestones would you choose in order to show the universality of mankind over the five continents ?

6/ Get ready for an oral presentation of the summary PLUS your own development. Remember that it will be clear if you make a proper introduction and conclusion, of course.

Date de dernière mise à jour : 09/12/2023

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